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Stone Column PDF Print


b1Why Use Stone Column

  • High speed installation that allows production of up to 10,000 linear meter per rig a month.

  • It is more economical than piling. Percentage of savings per meter square ranges from 20% to 70% depending on the pile spacing, length and capacity.

  • Significantly simplifies substructure design and construction compared to piling. Eliminate the needs of providing continuous pilecap / individual pilecap, cutting / lengthening of pile reinforcement for pilecap.

  • A layer of sand blanket is more than adequate to load and start the stone column installation onto the treatment area.

  • Significantly reduces consolidation settlement of subsoil up to 2 to 5 times lesser compare to untreated subsoil.

  • Immediately increases the shear strength and friction angle of treated soil and thus increases both short term and long term stability. Eliminate the need of counterweight berm.

  • No waiting period required after installation of stone column as compared to PVD. Full Height Embankment construction can proceed immediately after installation of the stone column.



Background of Stone Column

Stone Column, also known as Vibro Replacement, is a technique used for improving weak fills such as ex-mining slime and natural soils (soft Clay and soft Slit). Stone Column is considerably cheaper and quieter than the traditional method, piling - which is more costly and noisy during installation.

This technique has been used with great confidence in the European and American Market since the early 70’s. Since the introduction of Vibro Replacement (Stone Column) system to Malaysia in 1996, the system has been accepted and adopted successfully for most highway and railway projects.

Vibro Replacement / Stone Column is found to be the most effective method in improving soft Marine Clay, that exists extensively along the coastal line of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. This method can also treat loose/ soft reclamation land, as well as ex-mining slime that are found in Major townships like Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh.


Vibro Probe Technology
This technology was originally developed with a research programme with Leeds University. The invented probe, which utilizes hydraulic technology, has been proven in providing a better service life over conventional Vibro probes. The design of the probe also ensures quick exchanges of critical components in the event of a failure on site.



Vibro Probe Specifications

Power : 117 to 306 kW

Frequency : 30 to 60 Hz

Tip amplitude : Up to 22 mm (1 inch)

Diameters : 200 to 400 mm, not including side wing (8 to 16 inches)

Length : Variable

Type : Water Jet

Top and Bottom feed

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Workmanship / Quality Control

All stages of the processes are controlled and supervised by experienced and Conscientious personnel.

  • Rapid information transfer across the world
  • 100 % quality control assured
  • Client confidence
  • Able to record numerous variables to suit contract needs:-
      • Depth
      • Compaction and hydraulic pressures
      • Stone consumption

The Installation process of every single column is recorded by using the computer logger. Both hard and soft copies of the installation records are made available for the consultant to monitor on the quality of stone column formed.

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Techniques for Forming Stone Columns16

The probe penetrates into soft cohesive soils to reach the predetermined depth under its own weight, vibration of eccentric motor and high pressure water jetting. The high pressured jet flushes away subsoils while at the same time, serve as temporary casing in keeping the penetrated hole open. The probe is lifted and re-insert a couple of times to create an enlarged bored hole. Once the hole is created, successive charges of crushed stone or gravel are introduced and inserted into the hole in increments of 500mm. The Vibro probe is then lowered back into the hole to compact the imported stone to form a dense column interlocking with the surrounding ground. This process is being repeated in every 500mm lift to form a compacted stone column.

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Stone Column Installation Methodology1-schematic

  • The Vibro Probe penetrates by means of vibration and water jetting to the desired level.

  • Stones are placed around the annulus of the Vibro Probe where it descents and compacted at the tip of the Vibro Probe.

  • The process is continued and repeated till the tip of the probe reaches the surface. Compaction and pressures are being monitored at all times.

Contact Us if you have any enquiries regarding the stone column treatment here

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